Weathered Wood Logs in the Road Chopped Firewood

ANNOTATED FIREWOOD LITERATURE SUMMARY

  • Native and exotic insect borers are important crop pests in the U.S. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Publication ENY-730 (IN640). http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

    • Frank, D. L.
    • Mizell III, R. F.
    • 2006
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  • Bark- and wood-borer colonization of logs and lumber after heat treatment to ISPM 15 specifications: The role of residual bark. Journal of Economic Entomology 102(3): 1075-1084.

    • Haack, R.A.
    • Petrice, T.R.
    • 2009

    Wood packaging material (WPM) is a major pathway for international movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. ISPM 15, the first international standard for treating WPM, was adopted in 2002 and first implemented in the United States in 2006. ISPM 15 allows bark to remain on WPM after treatment, raising concerns that insects could infest after treatment, especially if bark were present. We conducted field studies to evaluate insect infestation of green logs and lumber with varying amounts of bark after heat treatment. In a log study, Cerambycidae and Scolytinae (ambrosia beetles and bark beetles) readily infested and developed in logs with bark after heat treatment. In a lumber study, Cerambycidae and bark beetles laid eggs in all sizes of bark patches tested (_25, 100, 250, and 1,000cm2) after heat treatment but did not infest control or heat-treated lumber without bark. Cerambycidae completed development only in boards with bark patches of 1,000 cm2, whereas bark beetles completed development on patches of 100, 250, and 1,000 cm2. Survival of bark beetles was greater in square patches (10 by 10 cm) versus rectangular patches (2.5 by 40 cm) of the same surface area (100cm2). In surveys at six U.S. ports in 2006, 9.4% of 5,945 ISPM 15-markedWPMitems contained bark, and 1.2% of 563 ISPM 15-marked WPM items with bark contained live insects of quarantine significance under the bark. It was not possible to determine whether the presence of live insects represented treatment failure or infestation after treatment.

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  • Incidence of bark- and wood-boring insects in firewood: A survey at Michigan’s Mackinac Bridge. Journal of Economic Entomology 103(5): 1682-1692.

    • Haack, R.A.
    • Petrice, T.R.
    • Wiedenhoeft, A.C.
    • 2010

    Firewood is a major pathway for the inadvertent movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. After discovery of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southeastern Michigan in 2002, quarantines were enacted including prohibition of transporting firewood across the Mackinac Bridge between Michigan’s Lower and Upper peninsulas. Drivers are required to surrender firewood before crossing the bridge. We surveyed recently surrendered firewood in April, July, and September 2008 and categorized it by genus, cross-sectional shape (whole, half, or quarter), approximate age (years since it was a live tree), presence of bark, and evidence of bark- and wood-boring insects. The 1,045 pieces of firewood examined represented 21 tree genera: primarily Acer (30%), Quercus (18%), Fraxinus (15%), Ulmus (12%), Betula (5%), and Prunus (5%). Live borers (Bostrichoidea, Brentidae, Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Cossidae, Curculionidae [Scolytinae and non-Scolytinae], and Siricidae) were found in 23% of the pieces and another 41% had evidence of previous borer infestation. Of the 152 Fraxinus firewood pieces, 13% had evidence of past A. planipennis infestation, but we found no live A. planipennis. We discuss national “don’t move firewood” campaigns and U.S. imports of fuelwood. During 1996-2009, the United States imported fuelwood valued at >$US98 million from 34 countries.

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