Weathered Wood Logs in the Road Chopped Firewood

ANNOTATED FIREWOOD LITERATURE SUMMARY

  • Emerald ash borer: invasion of the urban forest and the threat to North America’s ash resource. Journal of Forestry 104(3): 118-124.

    • Poland, T.M.
    • McCullough, D.G.
    • 2006

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, was discovered killing ash trees in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, in 2002. Like several other invasive forest pests, the EAB likely was introduced and became established in a highly urbanized setting, facilitated by international trade and abundant hosts. Up to 15 million ash trees in urban and forested settings have been killed by the EAB. Quarantines in the United States and Canada restrict the movement of ash trees, logs, and firewood to prevent new introductions. Research studies are underway to assist managers leading eradication and containment efforts. Long-term efforts will be needed to protect ash in urban and forested settings across North America.

  • Dispersal of Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) from operational and simulated mill yards. Canadian Entomologist 132: 853-866.

    • Poland, T.M.
    • Haack, R.A.
    • Petrice, T.R.
    • Sadof, C.S.
    • Onstad, D.W.
    • 2000

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, was discovered killing ash trees in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, in 2002. Like several other invasive forest pests, the EAB likely was introduced and became established in a highly urbanized setting, facilitated by international trade and abundant hosts. Up to 15 million ash trees in urban and forested settings have been killed by the EAB. Quarantines in the United States and Canada restrict the movement of ash trees, logs, and firewood to prevent new introductions. Research studies are underway to assist managers leading eradication and containment efforts. Long-term efforts will be needed to protect ash in urban and forested settings across North America.

  • Evaluating the use of plastic bags to prevent escape of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from firewood. Great Lakes Entomologist 41(1/2): 40-48.

    • Poland, T.M.
    • Ciaramitaro, T.M.
    • Pureswaran, D.S.
    • Diss-Torrance, A.
    • 2008

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Bu¬prestidae), is a highly destructive exotic pest of ash (Fraxinus) in North America. Human movement of infested logs, primarily pieces of firewood, is a major pathway for long distance spread of the beetle. Firewood may be confiscated at campgrounds, rest-areas, and key transportation gateways. Treatment guide¬lines for handling and storage of confiscated firewood are urgently needed to prevent new establishments of A. planipennis. In three laboratory experiments, we evaluated the efficacy of using 4-mil-thick plastic bags to contain and prevent escape of beetles from infested firewood-sized logs. For all experiments, control logs were unbagged and kept in horizontal rearing tubes in the laboratory. Treatment logs were loosely double-bagged or tightly single-bagged, and held on open laboratory benches or in rearing tubes or cans. Beetles emerged from both control and treatment logs during the course of the experiments. With a single exception, all beetles emerging from treatment logs died within the bags with no escapees. The one exception was a beetle from a tightly single-bagged log that chewed through the plastic. In contrast, all beetles emerging from control logs were collected live in the rearing containers. Double bagging firewood to contain A. planipennis during transport or storage could be an inexpensive and effective way of preventing escape of beetles from ash firewood.

  • Minnesota Firewood Dealer January 2007 Informal questionnaire survey report. Minnesota Department of Agriculture, Plant Protection Division. 12 pp.

    • Seeland, T.
    • 2007
    Minnesota Firewood Dealer

    A report of a survey given to firewood dealers in Minnesota which details their interest in labeling, kiln drying, licensing, import restrictions, and other regulatory efforts.

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