ANNOTATED FIREWOOD LITERATURE SUMMARY
Evaluating the survival of Phytophthora ramorum in firewood. In: Frankel, S.J.; Shea, P.J.; Haverty, M.I., tech. coords. Proceedings of the sudden oak death second science symposium: the state of our knowledge. 2005 January 18–21; Monterey, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-196. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: 540.
- Shelly, J.R.
- Singh, R.
- Langford, C.
- Mason, T.
Survival of the Douglas-fir beetle in peeled and unpeeled logs and in stumps. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 20(3): 149-153.
- Shore, T.L.
- Riel, W.G.
- Safranyik, L.
- Castonguay, J.
The Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) can cause significant mortality to mature Douglas-fir trees (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) during epidemics. Treatment methods are required to reduce local beetle populations to less damaging levels. We conducted a study to compare the effect on beetle survival of peeling bark from infested logs at two times of year. By Aug., all beetles in bark from logs peeled in July were dead compared with 155.2 beetles/m2 bark in unpeeled logs. In bark from logs peeled at the end of Aug. and left over winter, there were 3.4 beetles/m2 of bark surface compared with 62.3/m2 in unpeeled logs. It was concluded that peeling logs reduces beetle populations, particularly if done early in the summer. We also examined beetle survival in stumps over winter and found that a mean of 70.4 beetles/stump, or 125.6/m2 of stump surface survived winter. It is estimated that it would take beetles emerging from 24 stumps to kill a tree.
Timber import and the risk of forest pest introductions. J. Applied Ecol. 46: 55-63.
- Skarpaas, O.
- Okland, B.
Summary: 1. Many invasive species are introduced by trade, and there is a need for studies of pre-emptive measures to lower the risk of introductions, as post-establishment management is often extremely costly or nearly impossible. 2. In this study, we present a generic model for the first step of the invasion process for trade imported pests, and further develop this model for potentially harmful bark beetles to assess the risk of introductions and alternative management options. 3. Our results suggest that introductions of bark beetles are likely, given present timber import practices, and that immigration may often go undetected by pheromone traps. 4. The most effective measures for reducing introduction risk were those aimed at isolating the storage from forest (storage enclosure, location) followed by those reducing the available resources for forest pests (debarking, timber irrigation, rapid processing), whereas delayed import was least effective. 5. Synthesis and applications: The generic model framework of species introductions presented here may easily be adapted to other import systems. The submodels of population dynamics and dispersal are also quite general, and we expect our qualitative results to hold in many cases, although the models were parameterized for bark beetles in this study. Our results suggest that detection of dispersal from storage to forests will be difficult, which implies that management actions should not be deferred until after detection in nature, as the pest species may then already be established and eradication may be too late. However, pre-emptive measures reducing propagule pressure at one or several stages of the introduction process, in particular isolation measures, may strongly reduce introduction risk.
Residential fuelwood use in the United States. Journal of Forestry 82(12): 742-747.
- Skog, K.E.
- Watterson, I.A.
A national survey by the USDA Forest Service found that U.S. households are burning more wood than at any time since World War I1. In 1981, an estimated 42 million cords were used – an amount equal to one-fourth of that going into other wood products. Eighty percent of fuelwood is hardwood. The effect on timber markets is limited because only one-fourth is purchased and less than one-fourth of that cut by households comes from portions of trees usable for pulpwood or sawlogs. Currently, fuelwood displaces 2 to 3 percent of other home-heating fuels. One-half of fuelwood is burned in rural areas, where almost one-half of the households use 2 ½ to 3 cords annually. Greatest use per household is in the Pacific Northwest, Northern Rocky Mountains, and New England.