Weathered Wood Logs in the Road Chopped Firewood

ANNOTATED FIREWOOD LITERATURE SUMMARY

  • Pitch canker kills pines, spreads to new species and regions. California Agriculture 48(6): 9-13.

    • Storer, A.J.
    • Gordon, T.R.
    • Dallara, P.L.
    • Wood, D.L.
    • 1996

    The host and geographic range of the pitch canker pathogen has greatly increased since it was first discovered in California in 1986. Most significantly, it now affects many pine species, including native stands of Monterey pine, and has made a transgeneric jump to Douglas fir. Isolated occurrences of the disease have been found as far north as Mendocino County. Insects are strongly implicated as vectors of the pathogen, and longterm management appears to be dependent on the development of resistant tree varieties. In infested regions, the planting of Monterey pine and other pine tree species should be undertaken with caution.

  • Emerald ash borer flight potential. Pages 15-16 in V. Mastro and R. Reardon, (eds.). Emerald Ash Borer Research and Technology Development Meeting, Romulus, Michigan, Oct 5-6, 2004. USDA Forest Service Publication No. FHTET-2004-15.

    • Taylor, R.A.J.
    • Bauer, L.S.
    • Miller, D.L.
    • Haack, R.A.
    • 2005

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) that is rapidly spreading from the probable introduction site in Detroit, Michigan. The rapid spread to areas outside Michigan is undoubtedly due to phoretic transport on nursery stock, logs, and firewood. However, not all the range expansion can be attributed to human agency. Despite attempts to contain the core infestation to the counties surrounding Detroit and Essex County, Ontario, EAB range has continued to expand. This is due in part to the natural dispersal of EAB. Failure to understand the natural dispersal will impede attempts contain and control EAB; knowledge of flight behavior and physiology is needed to estimate dispersal capabilities in order to develop effective containment strategies.

  • Black walnut mortality in Colorado caused by the walnut twig beetle and thousand cankers disease. Plant Health Progress Published 11 August 2009.

    • Tisserat, N.
    • Cranshaw, W.
    • Leatherman, D.
    • Utley, C.
    • Alexander, K.
    • 2009

    Since 2001, widespread mortality of black walnut (Juglans nigra) has been reported in Colorado, USA. Affected trees initially show a yellowing and thinning of leaves in the upper crown, followed by twig and branch dieback and ultimately tree death. We report that this mortality is the result of a combination of an expanded geographic range of the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis), its aggressive feeding behavior on black walnut, and extensive cankering caused by an unnamed Geosmithia fungus associated with the beetle. Geosmithia was consistently recovered from the bodies of P. juglandis and this insect introduces the fungus into healthy trees during gallery formation. This is the first report of Geosmithia as a pathogen of black walnut. We propose the name Thousand Cankers to describe this disease because mortality is the result of bark necrosis caused by an enormous number of coalescing branch and trunk cankers. A second pathogen, Fusarium solani, was isolated from the margins of elongate trunk cankers during the final stages of decline, but not from cankers surrounding beetle galleries. Thousand Cankers Disease is eliminating black walnut along the Front Range of Colorado and poses a grave risk to this species in its native range in eastern North America should the insect/Geosmithia complex be introduced.

  • What does “local” firewood buy you? Managing the risk of invasive species introduction. Journal of Economic Entomology 103(5): 1569-1576.

    • Tobin, P.C.
    • Diss-Torance, A.
    • Blackburn, L.M.
    • Brown, B.D.
    • 2010

    Firewood can serve as a vector in the transport of non-native species, including wood-boring insects that feed within the wood and thus can be transported accidentally. Governments have enacted limitations on the movement of firewood in an effort to limit the anthropogenic movement of non-native species through, for example, recreational camping. Although the movement of invasive species through firewood is a documented invasion pathway, it is not trivial for governments to determine a "safe" allowable distance for moving firewood. We were motivated by this challenge and developed a theoretical simulation to determine the campgrounds that could be potentially exposed to infested firewood based upon the hypothetical distribution of an invasive species and the allowable distance for moving firewood. We extend this concept to the known distributions of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). We illustrate, based upon theoretical and empirical observations, that as the distribution of an invasive species increases, more rigid constraints on the movement of firewood would be required relative to those species that are distributed over a smaller scale. Also, on the level of management within a state, smaller states have far less margin for error than larger ones, as even extremely rigid restrictions on the movement of firewood could have little management effect unless the infested area is spatially limited. These results collectively suggest the potential for a dynamic management strategy that adjusts allowable distances for firewood movement based upon the distribution of the non-native species.